Monday, January 20, 2020

Columbine -Type Students In American Public Schools :: science

Columbine -Type Students In American Public Schools Don’t â€Å"kid† yourself. There’s trouble in paradise that escapes the vision of folks wearing rose-colored glasses. I’m not a contemporary Chicken Little running around screaming â€Å"The sky is falling!† And I’m not a little boy crying out â€Å"Wolf!† I am a former English teacher with thirty-four years classroom experience. I’ve taught through wars, recessions, political assassinations and public anti-war protests. I’ve seen and broken-up hundreds of bloody â€Å"student† fights. I’ve been threatened by enraged â€Å"students† and by their irate â€Å"parents.† Been there; done that! Columbine-type â€Å"students† attend most high and middle schools across the country. They attend Hammonton High, Hammonton Middle, Edgewood, Oakcrest and even Beverly Hills High. They might not always wear trench coats and carry concealed guns and grenades. But the Columbine â€Å"student† mindset is definitely present. These troubled Columbine-type youths are scarier than the obnoxious wise guys that daily defy teacher authority and they are more frightening than the â€Å"student† bullies that terrorize weaker peers and start brawls in the school cafeteria or hallways. The tacit behavior of Columbine-like students makes them a formidable challenge to school authority. Sure, high schools have â€Å"peer mediation.† The basic problem is that these â€Å"Columbine-like† students don’t want to communicate with representatives of standard academic school society. The sinister-minded teens often don’t even communicate with each other. That’s what makes them walking and sitting time-bombs ready to detonate. They prefer having an insular existence that does not want to be disturbed. They don’t express themselves until it’s too late. The â€Å"Columbine student mentality† has a certain behavioral â€Å"profile.† That’s right all you politically correct critics out there, I emphatically stated the improper word â€Å"profile.† The kids say little or nothing at all. They keep their feelings and thoughts mainly to themselves while sitting in their desks, often seething beneath cool external faà §ades. Columbine-type kids seldom participate in classroom discussions or volunteer to do constructive things in school. To them athletics, school clubs and awards are not worth pursuing. Their rebellion is silent, stealthy, cold, cunning and calculated. Their ongoing rage is adroitly camouflaged; they could erupt and explode at any minute. These kids, probably around five percent of any middle or high school’s student body, are individual sticks of dynamite ready to be lit. Not even the â€Å"students’† guidance counselors have any psychological handle on what these wily youths are thinking, feeling or plotting. The Columbine-type kid often feels picked-on, frustrated, alienated and persecuted.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Dhaka Stock Exchange Collapse of 2010â€2011 Essay

Dhaka Stock Exchange (Generally known as DSE) is the main stock exchange of Bangladesh. It is located in Motijheel at the heart of the Dhaka city. It was incorporated in 1954. Dhaka stock exchange is the first stock exchange of the country. As of 18 August 2010, the Dhaka Stock Exchange had over 750 listed companies with a combined market capitalization of $50.28 billion. 1.1 History First incorporated as East Pakistan Stock Exchange Association Ltd in 28 April 1954 and started formal trading in 1956. It was renamed as East Pakistan Stock Exchange Ltd in 23 June 1962. Again renamed as Dacca Stock Exchange Ltd in 13 May 1964. After the liberation war in 1971 the trading was discontinued for five years. In 1976 trading restarted in Bangladesh, on 16 September 1986 DSE was started. The formula for calculating DSE all share price index was changed according to IFC on 1 November 1993. The automated trading was initiated in 10 August 1998 and started on 1 January 2001. Central Depository System was initiated in 24 January 2004. As of November 16, 2009, the benchmark index of the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) crossed 4000 points for the first time, setting another new high at 4148 points. In 2010, the index crossed 8500 points and finally crashed in the first quarter of 2011. 1.2 Formation Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) is a public limited company. It is formed and managed under Company Act 1994, Security and Exchange Commission Act 1993, Security and Exchange Commission Regulation 1994, and Security Exchange (Inside Trading) regulation 1994. The issued capital of this company is Tk.  500,000 which is divided up to 250 shares each pricing Tk. 2000. No individual or firm can buy more than one share. According to stock market rule only members can participate in the floor and can buy shares for himself or his clients. At present it has 238 members. Market capitalization of the Dhaka Stock Exchange reached nearly $9 billion in September 2007 and $27.4 billion on Dec 9, 2009. 1.3 Management The management and operation of Dhaka Stock Exchange is entrusted on a 25 members Board of Director. Among them 12 are elected from DSE members, another 12 are selected from different trade bodies and relevant organizations. The CEO is the 25th ex-officio member of the board. The following organizations are currently holding positions in DSE Board: Bangladesh Bank ICB President of Institute of Chartered Accountants of Bangladesh President of Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industries President of Metropolitan Chambers of Commerce and Industries Professor of Finance Department of Dhaka University President of DCCI (Dhaka Chamber of Commerce and Industry) 1.4 Trading time The Dhaka Stock Exchange is open for trading Sunday through Thursday between 10:30am – 2:30pm BST, with the exception of holidays declared by the Exchange in advance. In the month of Ramadan, the exchange is open for trading between 10:30am – 1:30pm BST. 2. Previous major crash – Stock market crash in 1996 The number of BO account holders in 1996 was only 300,000 and most of them were new in the market. At that time it was not easy for investors to detect the fake shares from the genuine ones. Because during the crash of 1996, paper shares used to be sold in front of DSE.There was no automated trading system, surveillance was not strong enough, and there were no circuit breakers as well as international protection. From 1991 to the end of 1995, DSE General Index price gained by 139.3 per cent and reached 834 point. But  in 1996, the market experienced a dramatic change and pushed the price index up by 337 percent. DSE General Index recorded a high growth from July and stood at 3648.7 points on 5th November 1996. Besides, Chittagong Stock Exchange experienced the same change and grew by 258 percent. Chittagong Stock Exchange index increased from 409 to 1157 points in 1996 within a one year’s time. But the steps taken by the government did not work. The index lost over 233 points on November 6, 1996. After the bubble burst, DGEN index dropped to its lowest point and stood at 957 in April 1997. It stood at around the same point, where it was 10 months before and DSE General Price Index lost almost 70 percent from its highest point in November 1996. Then the index continued to decrease for the next 7 years until April 2004. During this long period, DGEN Index seldom crossed 1000 point. In short this can be described by using a graphical presentation. Figure 1. Scenario of Share price index points of Dhaka Stock Exchange 3. Cause of market crush in 2010-2011 The stock market crashed again in 2010-2011. The major causes are as follows- 3.1 Margin Calls & Illiquidity crisis When investors pay a part of future market contracting by cash or selected instruments in an account with a broker which is called Margin. To make sure obligations of investor when contract expired, more Margins is necessary if value of the contract decreases. The process is called Margin call. On â€Å"Black Monday†, price movement of future contracts created record amount of Margin calls for firms which were about 10 times the average size. Collected payments are paid to investors whose position had gained. Some investors lost their ability to enter new positions due to Margin calls and some needing to extend credit to make the payment. As investors were unable to pay margins, brokers placed emergency margin calls with exposed options positions which were assumed to be liquidated due to failure of meeting margin calls. It occurred repeatedly which possibly made selling pressure in the market and markets were not able to handle these sell orders. 3.2 Program Trading Summit Financial Advisors has stated that many analysts accused program trading, especially portfolio insurance as a major reason for the crash. In this trading, computers automatically order large stocks trades when certain market trends prevailed. Analysts blamed that the program trading blindly sold stocks when prices declined on 19th October. 3.3 Derivative Securities Investors not only invested in actual stock market but also in index options and futures markets. Option and future market are called derivatives as the value derives due to change of stock prices. The Brady Commission which was commissioned to examine the reasons of the crash found that the failure of stock mar-kets and derivatives markets to operate in sync was an important factor that contributed to the severity of the crash. 3.4 Role of market regulators and their employees The role of SEC to control & monitor capital market, working in favor of manipulators, approving unethical proposal and issuing wrong directives which lead to unexpected market conditions deteriorated the image of SEC. Investigation report mentioned some names of corrupt employees of the market regulators who were directly or indirectly responsible in the market manipulation. There is a job overlapping between SEC and exchanges. Such as, DSE & SEC both organizations have surveillance department for the same job but there is no co-ordination. Listing committee of DSE & CSE examines listing application of company but SEC doesn’t do it properly and approve it. Placement of Mutual fund & IPO at a price lower than the market value has become a new method of bribery for powerful employees of regulators. There is another accusation that these senior level employees received placement by using other`s name which is very difficult to identify. The report admits that SEC doesn’t have enough employees for example; qualified accountant, financial analyst and researcher to control and monitor the market. Rahman & Moazzem (2011) identified in their study that Dhaka stock exchange is becoming more volatile but the regulators are unable to defend it. They also suggested increasing manpower and quality of professionals in SEC. 3.5 Demutualization of Exchanges There are both elected & nominated members in DSE and CSE. Basically, elected members run the administration due to less interest & relation of nominated members. As a result, the players of the capital market act as controllers. Meanwhile, controllers are inactive during unethical activities due to conflict of interest. In the investigation report it was said that different stake holders of capital market and civil society support & demand for demutualization of exchanges. The meaning of Demutualization is separating controlling functions from controller’s functions, empowering controller and taking decisions without being motivated by the market players. 3.6 Investment of bank in the capital market In 2009 & 10 banks and financial institutions invested huge amount of deposit money in the stock market. As a result share prices sky rocketed until December 2010. When Bangladesh Bank restricted more than 10 percent investment of deposited money, increased CRR and SLR ratio, created liquidity crisis and market crashed. 3.7 Pre-IPO & IPO process Investigation committee considered that due to Pre-IPO & IPO manipulation share prices sky rocketed and that is the main reason for the share market crash. Manipulators illegally & unethically created a Kerb market in Pre-IPO stage. Without recommendation by the listing committee application for IPO was accepted. SEC did not examine abnormal asset revaluation and indicative price. As a result in Pre-IPO or IPO stage placement process and placement trade Kerb market overvalued share prices. This eventually generated liquidity crisis in the capital market. 3.8 Uniform face value of share During the meeting between investigation committee and different stake holders of share market, a most important reason for abnormal climbing of index was indicated to uniform face value of share at Taka 10. Splitting share does not change revenue or asset of a company and should not affect the share price. But Small investors showed their utmost inter-est to buy split share with their small investment and consequently pushed the price up. Up to 62 listed companies split their shares in 2009 & 2010. So, it  abnormally increased liquidity of the market and brought notable change in market capitalization. Investigation report shows that MC increased 655% of companies those adopted share uniform and MC increased only 46% of those that did not adopt. From July 2009 to December 2010 the role of total MC were 81.5% of companies which adopted share uniform and only18.5% those that did not adopt. 3.9 Placement trade / Kerb market Before issuing IPO, Issue manager or Issuer Company sell shares to their nominated person and that is called Private placement or pre-IPO placement. Private placement is risky because it doesn’t have accounting discloser. In the developed countries there are some fixed rules but in Bangladesh SEC didn’t have proper rules for it. As a result some manipulators used it as a tool of price manipulation. Investigation committee found that in most of the cases placement was offered at less than the IPO price. Though aim of public offering is participation of public but placement doesn’t make sure it. Eight companies issued convertible preference share in 2009 & 10 in which average 69% went for placement. So, participation of the public was hindered and that created placement trade or Kerb market. Some companies distributed 50-90 percent of their paid up capital in private placement. However, when a company raises too much paid up capital through private placement, the number of free-floating shares decreased. That’s why the difference between demand & supply push share prices up. Moreover, non-listed companies created liquidity crisis as huge investment was stuck up with these companies. Placement created new process of trading outside of the share market and that is illegal. By taking chance of placement many small companies raised capital from illiterate and un-informed investors with their artificial financial reports. 3.10 Omnibus account Investigation report found Omnibus accounts of ICB and merchant banks as another major reason behind the stock market debacle. Every branch of merchant bank operates only one omnibus account. There could be 3-10 thousands BO Accounts under the omnibus account which are not under the surveillance of SEC. So, information of individual accounts and its transaction are kept only with merchant banks. As investigation reports  shows that this kind of account made a lot of illegal transactions. It publishes name of 30 big players including ICB for a lot of suspicious transactions and says most manipulators traded from the omnibus accounts. It was also reported at least Taka 2.5 billion has been traded from hidden or omnibus accounts. 3.11 Asset revaluation & Rumor By taking chance of weak asset revaluation method companies have overvalued their asset. In this process dishonest auditors generated artificial audit reports. So, calculating of NAV on overvalued asset indicates wrong signal. Some companies issued Bonus shares against unrealized gain of revalued asset price which is a faulty accounting practice. There is rule to maintain provision against â€Å"deferred tax† during asset revaluation to pay tax in future, but companies are not following it. Investigation reports pointed some companies which got NAV more than 100% to 3,472% after asset revaluation. 3.12 Book building method It’s a procedure of determining price of IPO at which it is offered. The fair price is determined by the demand of a security from institutional investors and their indicative price. The main aim of introducing this method in Bangladesh stock market was to attract more firms for enlisting in the stock exchanges through fair share pricing. However, it was found as an instrument of manipulating market prices. Investigation report reveals that during the price discovery/bidding stage investors manipulated share prices for placement with too high price. High price was maintained only for the lock-in period and then investors offloaded their shares. As a result they pulled out a lot of profit within a short period and after that the share price did not increase. In this process corrupted Issuer and issue manager manipulated the price. 3.13 Serial and artificial trading Some manipulators created artificial active trading environment among themselves through bulk transaction and increased share prices. Moreover serial trading and price manipulation by many buy-sell orders through different accounts and broker houses which overheated the market. 3.14 Issue of Right and preference share Right Share is issued at a discount price to existing shareholders. SEC took 4/5 months to take the decision of right issue proposal which is mysterious. Meanwhile companies inform the market about Right issuance and increased the share price. Moreover, issuance of Right share increase number of share which should decrease share price but it did not hap-pen. Investing in Preference share is safe to get a fixed percentage of profit. To make the share attractive companies keep an opportunity to convert it and in that case it is called Convertible Preference Share. Companies issued preference share for only 2-3 months even for 1 month which is not common in other countries. The faults with convertible preference share were its time period (short), convertible process and private placement. Investigation committee found that SEC did not have proper guidelines for Right and Preference Share issuance. 3.15 Suspicious transaction of top players Investigation report reveals some names of individual and institutional investors as top buyers and sellers during abnormal increase and decrease of index in different time periods. The transactions of these investors were suspicious and affected the market heavily and liable for abnormal rise and fall. 3.16 Block placement There was a lot of suspicious block trading of mutual funds. Some investors got enormous amount of placement time to time. 3.17 Direct listing With the approval of SEC few companies have been directly listed in the stock exchange. These companies come to the market with inflated share prices. Investigation report mentioned that indicative prices of these companies were determined even 58 times more than EPS and 9 times of NAV. Though share prices of these types of directly listed companies have been artificially determined, but SEC or exchanges did not investigate the reason of abnormal price. 4. Impact of the crash Bangladeshi stock market experienced through inefficient and irrational fluctuation of DGEN Index in the year 1996 and 2011 . During 2010, the bullish market turned bearish with the exchange losing 1,800 points between December 2010 and January 2011. DGEN Index climbed at point 8918.51 on December 05, 2010 which was overvalued in all aspect. Then the market crashed at point 4877 in November 2011. Figure 3: Daily DGEN index of January, 2011 Figure 4: Showing the Movement of DSE General Index from June- ’10 to May- ‘11 Impacts of the crash were: As a result of the market crash, millions of investors have been rendered bankrupt. Because of free fall of share prices, Investors came out in the street again and started protesting against free fall of share prices and chanted slogans against market regulators. Random objects like wood and papers were set on fire in front of the DSE office in Motijheel. Investors came out in the street with processions and demonstrated against free fall of Share index in both bourses as well as suspension of trading. Investors from different parts of the country such as, Chittagong, Comilla, Narsingdi, Narayanganj and Jessore brought out processions and clashed with law en-forces in some places as well. Investors blamed the speculators and regulators for the bubble that finally burst. Economy faced liquidity crisis. Authoritites and government took steps to handle the crisis. But stock market of Bangladesh had already got the adjective of â€Å"the worst stock market in the world†. And an o ngoing market turmoil is still going on. 5. Measures taken to stabilize the stock market Since the collapse of the market in December 2010, a number of initiatives were undertaken by Ministry of Finance (MoF), Security and Exchange Commission (SEC), Bangladesh Bank, Government and Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE)/ Chittagong Stock Exchange (CSE) to stabilize the market. 5.1 Steps taken by government- The government took a number of measures to inject money in the market. This included Tk. 600 crore worth of funds distributed to the state-owned banks and Investment Corporation of Bangladesh (ICB), and formation of a mutual fund titled Bangladesh Fund with an initial resource of Tk. 1,500 crore. Under the national budget of FY2011-12, government announced a number of incentives to recover the capital market situation. Some of these were re-introduction of tax rebate facilities, tax-free facilities for mutual funds, time extension for non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) to adjust their investment in stock market (revised timeline is December 2013), and adjustment of single borrower exposure limit by the commercial banks (revised timeline is December 2013). All these budgetary measures have direct and indirect implications for raising fund for the ailing capital market. A probe committee was created by the government to identify the reasons, people and solution regarding the prob lem of the stock market. The Probe Committee and the MOF came up with a list of 36-point measures which were to be implemented in three phases (i.e. immediate, short and medium-term). 5.2 Steps taken by SEC- Security & Exchange Commissions applied a lot of directives to keep the market under control in 2010. SEC changed directive of margin loan ratio by increasing it from 1:0.5 to 1:1 on 13th December and later it was again hiked to 1:1.5 & 1:2 because of free fall of share prices. Actions were taken against persons found guilty for their fraudulent activities, investigation of allegations against the SEC officials who indulged in market manipulation, examination of assets of some of the companies alleged to have been involved in illegal trading, and initiation to probe allegations against several companies was also done. Criminal investigation against a number of companies and persons which was supposed to be carried out by the Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) was started but without much visible progress. SEC under its new management has also prepared a 29-point work plan. Of these, eight activities were identified as ‘top urgent’, three as ‘urgent’, 14 as ‘short term tasks’ and four as ‘medium term tasks’. The MoF along with SEC and other stakeholders prepared the much-hyped Market Rejuvenation Package. This 21-point package focuses on greater participation of banks and other financial institutions in the stock market, besides setting up a ‘special scheme’ to provide support to small investors who lost their capital. 5.3 Steps taken by Bangladesh Bank- Bangladesh Bank pushed money into the market as liquidity support. Banks have reportedly kept buying shares despite suffering from liquidity crises themselves, and not selling any shares. 6. Outlook for the future To protect the share market of Bangladesh, the regulatory body should take some effective measures. It should introduce some monitoring systems to protect the price manipulations of the share. Provisions should be made to provide all the financial data to the investors so that they can get a proper idea about the company. The market should be free from fake certificates. The government should offer income tax rebate on the income of share market and encourage the banks and non banking institutions to come to the market directly. Some incentives package for the investors like getting financing at a low cost has to be offered to bring back the investors in the market. Market stabilization fund must be introduced so that it can help to meet up with crisis situation. Since Bangladesh is heading toward the developing nation, capital market can be the engine of growth for its economy if market becomes structured and efficient. Around the world well reputed stock markets like – New York Stock Exchange, London Stock Exchange, Shanghai Stock Exchange, Tokyo Stock Exchange, Australian Securities Exchange, Dubai Stock Exchange and so on, are regulated and running efficiently that provides significant contribution to their individual economy. Because, stock market is knowledge based game rather than a place of gambling; there must be rational win-lose situation always. But Bangladeshi stock market experienced through inefficient and irrational fluctuation of DGEN Index in the year 1996 and 2011 which resembles the place of gambling. To sum up, from our study, we have found that, there are problems like – Big Gap between the Demand and Supply of stock, extraordinary over pricing of stock, market manipulation, lack of knowledge about the stoc k market mechanism among the general investors, price distortion, inefficient regulations, political unrest, etc. These caused the steepest downward fall of DGEN Index in the financial year 2011.  As a result, about millions of investors lost their capital which turned them empty within few months. Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) of Bangladesh and government should take the short term and long term initiatives to stabilize the market. They should encourage more public limited companies to offer more share to meet the current demands. Income tax rebate, Injection of Market Stabilization Fund, Mandatory holding certain percentage of share among the board of directors, short term incentives packages should be introduced to get back the confidence among the existing investors. Regulatory bodies of Bangladesh stock market must educate the current and potential investors about the market mechanism and provide them the accurate information so that investors trade their shares carefully. Unless, appropiate corrective measures are well formulated and implemented, Bangladeshi stock market will be facing this irrational downward again in the near future. 7. ARAMIT from 2010- 2013 From the graph we see that, before the crash market price was above tk 450. And in the time of market crash from December 2010- January’11, the price of aramit started to fall and reached tk 436 at the end of January 2011. After that the market fluctuated and hit its lowest of tk 192.6 on february 2012. The current market price as of 24th February,2013 is tk 216. Profit Status: Based on Annualized EPS of 2012 (Q3): Basic Current Price Earning Ratio (P/E) (Based on Continuing operation) 12.65 Based on audited EPS of 2011 Current Price Earning Ratio (P/E) (Based on Continuing Operation) 15.15 Reference : 1. http://www.cpd.org.bd/pub_attach/WP95.pdf 2. http://publications.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/47195/saha_sangit.pdf?sequence=1 3. http://www.dsebd.org/displayCompany.php?name=ARAMIT 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Bangladesh_share_market_scam 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhaka_Stock_Exchange 6. http://www.similarsites.com/goto/bdstock.com?pos=2&s=10

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Gay Parenting Essay - 939 Words

For generations, homosexuality has been repelled against and condemned. Homosexuality is not normal, according to certain traditions and religions. Homosexuality is to be frowned upon and recognized as demons and sin-natured. In modern times, homosexuality has become a lifestyle and a relationship for more and more people with each passing moment. Although homosexual marriage is not allowed in some states, the anatomy of the person, whether male or female, hardly allows them to reproduce without sperm or ovaries. Since gays are not capable of reproducing, then adoption is their next option or sperm donors. The big controversy is whether or not homosexuals should be allowed to adopt children or whether the â€Å"step-parent,† which is actually†¦show more content†¦Why does a single homosexual or partnered homosexuals get criticized or be constricted by the law for the same thing that heterosexuals are doing every day? Does anyone truly know what family values are? Ca n a single parent teach their child family values or does the opposite sex has to be present? Adopting a child and worrying how the child might turn out is not based on if the parents are gay or not, but how the child is raised. Is the child raised to be mean and abused or friendly and talkative? The problem is not that gays should not be able to adopt, but that the children are brought up with morals and ethics that are in standard with society. Gay parents have the tendency to be more outgoing and committed than straight parents. This is more true than false because homosexual partners normally choose to be parents and are prepared to take time away from their jobs and social life to raise a child with the person they love (Pappas 1). According to the 2000 U.S. Census/Demography study, almost 160,000 homosexuals are currently living with children the gay parents have adopted children or gave birth to children (â€Å"Graph† 1). As homosexuality becomes more and more frequent with people, then adoption will become more frequent. The type of traditional family is starting to change. Nearly one-fourth of the children that live in the United States are living with one parent (â€Å"Gay Parenting† 2). The need for adoption is among the world today. In reference toShow MoreRelatedThe Controversy of Gay Parenting Essay972 Words   |  4 PagesThe Controversy of Gay Parenting Gay parenting is an issue that affects a great number of people worldwide. Although the number is a minority, the issue still causes heated debate. People who are in favor of Gay, Lesbian, and Bi-Sexual parenting rights claim that as long as there is a commitment to parenthood then successful parenting is achievable as a homosexual or bi-sexual. Since within a gay couple there is no chance for accidental pregnancy, the couple must make a conscious decision to becomeRead More The Debate over Gay Parenting Essay1166 Words   |  5 PagesOver the last several decades, gay rights have been a growing topic in the public and in the court rooms. Recently, the debate about gays having the right or ability to parent has become a hot topic, due to the expanding gay community. There are typically two stances taken on the topic of gay parenting: it’s wrong and should be illegal or it’s normal and should be legal. While the norms, stereotypes and debates about gay parenting have va ried over the years, today there seems to be a positive consensusRead MoreGay or Lesbian Parenting and the Psychological Effects on Their Adoptive Children890 Words   |  4 Pagesfamilies and if their parents have a stable relationship with each other and with their adoptive children, and have great support systems, then it should not be difficult for those children to thrive in the world as children of gay/lesbian parents. Families headed by gay and lesbian parents are just as diverse as families led by heterosexual couples (Thompson 36). The only difference in these families is there are two mothers or two fathers. They are seen as â€Å"unnatural† by most conservatives andRead MoreGay Adoption And Parenting : A Of The Sexual Orientation Issues Affecting The Society Today1891 Words   |  8 PagesKayser English 100 December 7, 2016 Gay adoption and parenting Gay adoption and parenting are one of the sexual orientation issues affecting the society today. It involves two men who adopt children and raise them as their kids. There are various ways of adopting children, including agency adoption, independent adoptions and the identified adoptions (Golombok et al., 458). After adoption, children are brought up with the parents of the same sex. For gay adoption, it involves both male parentsRead MoreGay Parenting Essay2094 Words   |  9 PagesThe conception that lesbians and gay men may be parents is frequently perceived in todays society as impossible or immoral. Gay men and lesbians are often viewed as excluded from having children because sexual reproduction is related to men and women only. My approach to this uniquely controversial topic of gay parenting will be that of attempting to analyze the Pro side first. Gays and lesbians are human too and who is to say that they dont deserve equal rights in society. Society has to realizeRead M oreThe Role Of Gay Parenting1846 Words   |  8 Pagestimes that they went through as an adult. Gay and lesbian parenting is an accepted problem that people watch occur every single day, and that should not have to see. The role of gay parenting is ruining; the traditional family aspect of a childhood, the way the children are treated in schools, and it also is a threat to religion. The way people live today should be the traditional way of the families and children should be brought up, and not by lesbian or gay parents so that the kids would not haveRead More Gay Parenting Essay1797 Words   |  8 PagesGay Parenting Steve Lofton and his partner, Roger Croteau live in fear each day of having their foster-son, Bert, taken away from them and placed with another family. Steve and Roger can not adopt Bert, who is 10 years old, because a Florida law banning gays from adopting prohibits it. Bert, along with four other children, has been in the care of Steve and Roger since he was an infant. If he is taken away from them, he will lose the only family he has ever known. Since June 1977, FloridaRead More A Study on Gay Parenting Essay1090 Words   |  5 Pagesa sensitive subject in society for a long time, and in recent years, it has sparked both support and controversy in areas such as legalizing gay and lesbian marriage and various other matters that have arisen surrounding the movement towards equality of treatment and integration into society. One of these matters that has garnered attention is gay parenting. With some states now allowing same-sex marriage or unions, the next step being taken is starting a family. There has been wide speculation intoRead MoreThe Debate On Marriage And Parenting Rights For Gay And1673 Words   |  7 PagesThe debate on marriage and parenting rights for gay and lesbian individuals has been one of the most hotly contested social issues in recent history. While many arguments are cited to prevent gay couples from enjoying equality, these arguments ultimately condense to concerns rooted in homophobia. Opponents of the LGBT community contend that same sex parenting contradicts the natural order of the world, subjects children to unnecessary societal stigma, and that the state has a right to favor heterosexualRead More Social and Legal Obstacles of Gay and Lesbian Parenting Essay1677 Words   |  7 PagesSocial and Legal Obstacles of Gay and Lesbian Parenting In the last decade there has been a rise in the number of lesbians and gay men forming their own families. Many do this through adoption, foster care, artificial insemination, and other means. Today, researchers have estimated that the number of children living with one gay or lesbian parent is six to fourteen million. Some have described this current period as a lesbian and gay â€Å"baby boom†. However, lesbian and gay parents face many social and

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Graphology Essay example - 563 Words

Graphology Graphology, also known as Writing Psychology, it is the study of handwriting. Very old and still in use today, it is supposed to reveal a persons attributes from their handwriting. But you can ask yourselves, how this is done? What does a graphologist look at when in analyzing your handwriting? There are five important aspects the analyzer will examine: first he will examine the dimensions of the letter; their height and width. Next he will analyze the form of the writing; then inclination, pressure applied when writing, and finally if your writing forms attached or detached letters. Dimensions: The average height of handwriting is five millimeters. As a reference point the lines on a typical loose-leaf piece of†¦show more content†¦Angular: angular writing is formed by aggressive movements and is graceless. The writer is stubborn. He will not compromise his ideas and convictions. Ovals: closed ovals of the letters a-d-g-o-q are an indication of discretion. On the contrary, open ovals indicate a person willing to speak of their personal affairs. If the oval opens to the right, the writer is very spontaneous. If the oval opens to the left, the writer has need to speak however is somewhat reserved. If the oval is open towards the bottom, this might demonstrate pure hypocrisy. Inclination of handwriting: Yet another technique in analyzing handwriting is whether the handwriting inclines to the left or to the right. Writing leading to the right is the most spontaneous. The writer obeys docilely his feelings and instincts, and he is affectionate. He is easily influenced. Writing which leans to the left gives the impression of being artificial. The writer may be hesitant in what he writes. His attitude is distant and cold. He may be masking his true feelings. Pressure applied: When writing, if the writer presses lightly on the paper we can deduce that the person is shy, timid, not very sensual, and often of delicate health. However, if the writer presses forcefully, such as I do, one can deduce that the writer is active and well balanced. He has a strong personality and good health. His sensuality is pronounced but normal. He is realistic. Attached or detachedShow MoreRelated Handwriting: More than Just Ink [Graphology] Essay5334 Words   |  22 Pages nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Handwriting analysis is also known as graphology. Graphology is defined as the study of handwriting, especially as used to infer a persons character. The interest in handwriting as an expression of personality is as old as the practice itself. â€Å"Chinese philosophers have been fascinated with handwriting since ancient times and have been especially interested in the distinct styles of calligraphy produced by different writers† (Sackheim,1990, p. xv-xvi). The first methodicalRead MoreMy Handwriting Is A Strong Indicator Of Your Personality873 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"plausible†. I say this because there are many ways geologists can tell a person’s personality just by the way they position their letters and how much space him/her may uses in their writing by hand. According to â€Å"Does Graphology Predict Personality a nd Intelligence† graphology books describe both what factors to look at (e.g., size, slant, zone, pressure, etc.) and what traits are revealed; However, there appears to be no consistency between them, particularly, in the description of personalityRead MoreMysteries Of Personality : The Unveiling1586 Words   |  7 Pagespersonality characteristics (Lilienfeld, 2010, p. 175-179). Research based evidence using methods that are valid, reliable and duplicable provide documentation opposing mythological theories concerning the connection between personality traits, astrology, graphology and self-affirmation (Lilienfeld, 2010; Stanovich, 2013). In 2009, Napper et al. published a study that focused on testing the â€Å"self-affirmation manipulation† (p. 45). â€Å"Self-affirmation theory† defines issues or situations that present themselvesRead MoreDifferent Types Of Register That People Use Every Day, And Your Register Essay1691 Words   |  7 Pagesopposing sides of a topic Graphology 1. The graphology of a text can have different results. 2. Synonym- evidence 3. The evidence of a text can have different results. 4. The essential message of the sentence is lost, the replacing of graphology to evidence similar meanings. The word graphology means how the different forms of communication creates meaning to a words and a system of signs. Evidence means different proofs resulting into one results. Graphology is more specific in how typesRead Morestylistics analysis of a sindhi woman972 Words   |  4 PagesWith the use of rhyme scheme, alliteration and repetition poet makes poem more attractive and beautiful. In other words we can say that these are the ornaments of poetry. Graphology: Graphology refers to the whole writing system: punctuation and paragraphing as well as spacing. According to Crystal and Davy (1969, p.18) ―Graphology is the analogous study of a languages writing system. These are the formalized rules of writing. Alabi (2007, p.170) added that a graphological discussion of style amongRead MoreFirst Aid for Adults Essay640 Words   |  3 Pages In order to comply with the rules of instructional writing, I needed to shorten the sentences so that the information was broken down in to smaller chunks to make it easier for the audience to follow. So I decided to change the graphology of the piece by using bullet points for the points in the opening paragraph of the speech so that it shows in a better way that the reader will pause between them. In my second draft, however, I decided to also have the points on anRead More Advertisement Coursework - Volkswagen Golf Essay935 Words   |  4 Pagescreate the appearance that it is not demanding to gain the car. Finally for this section. The advert constantly repeats the phrase ?more power, less pollution.? This is done to further strengthen the key selling point of the car. Graphology The graphology of this advert is unique to the designer. The first are the audience pays heed to, is the image. This comprises of the two contrasting images, placed in juxtaposition. The car itself however is positioned to be overlying each image. IntelligentlyRead MoreLanguage and Power AQA A level English Language B Essay1232 Words   |  5 Pageshaving imperatives, it makes the group come across as secure to the audience and therefore gaining their trust from the beginning. The imperative â€Å"write† is also in capital, bold letters right at the top of the page included in the title. This clever graphology compliments the use of the imperative by making it stand out. Because this is a leaflet through the letterbox, many people would normally regard it as junk mail and not take a second look. Because of the imperative in the title, it encourages peopleRead MoreEssay about Psychology is a Science506 Words   |  3 PagesPsychology is definitely not what I thought it was. It is not just a therapist wanting to take your money and not do anything for it. Psychology is an exact science that uses the scientific method to figure out problems. Things like astrology and graphology are not a real science, they do not use true science to deduct things and find a true answer. There are a lot of different ideas within the history of psychology. There was Structuralism, which focused on the structure of the mind. FuctionalismRead MoreThe Presentation of Food Science in a Variety of Non-fiction Texts1812 Words   |  7 Pagesmaterial is more varied, so suits my investigation. I chose four texts from the genre of food science writing aimed at very different audiences. I created a table in which to record the different aspect of my analysis these include lexis, imagery, graphology, numerical values/ scientific abbreviation and interesting features Title Genre Audience purpose Text A Horrible Science Childrens science magazine Young children To inform and entertain to educate Text B Food Processing Non-fiction book

Graphology Essay example - 563 Words

Graphology Graphology, also known as Writing Psychology, it is the study of handwriting. Very old and still in use today, it is supposed to reveal a persons attributes from their handwriting. But you can ask yourselves, how this is done? What does a graphologist look at when in analyzing your handwriting? There are five important aspects the analyzer will examine: first he will examine the dimensions of the letter; their height and width. Next he will analyze the form of the writing; then inclination, pressure applied when writing, and finally if your writing forms attached or detached letters. Dimensions: The average height of handwriting is five millimeters. As a reference point the lines on a typical loose-leaf piece of†¦show more content†¦Angular: angular writing is formed by aggressive movements and is graceless. The writer is stubborn. He will not compromise his ideas and convictions. Ovals: closed ovals of the letters a-d-g-o-q are an indication of discretion. On the contrary, open ovals indicate a person willing to speak of their personal affairs. If the oval opens to the right, the writer is very spontaneous. If the oval opens to the left, the writer has need to speak however is somewhat reserved. If the oval is open towards the bottom, this might demonstrate pure hypocrisy. Inclination of handwriting: Yet another technique in analyzing handwriting is whether the handwriting inclines to the left or to the right. Writing leading to the right is the most spontaneous. The writer obeys docilely his feelings and instincts, and he is affectionate. He is easily influenced. Writing which leans to the left gives the impression of being artificial. The writer may be hesitant in what he writes. His attitude is distant and cold. He may be masking his true feelings. Pressure applied: When writing, if the writer presses lightly on the paper we can deduce that the person is shy, timid, not very sensual, and often of delicate health. However, if the writer presses forcefully, such as I do, one can deduce that the writer is active and well balanced. He has a strong personality and good health. His sensuality is pronounced but normal. He is realistic. Attached or detachedShow MoreRelated Handwriting: More than Just Ink [Graphology] Essay5334 Words   |  22 Pages nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Handwriting analysis is also known as graphology. Graphology is defined as the study of handwriting, especially as used to infer a persons character. The interest in handwriting as an expression of personality is as old as the practice itself. â€Å"Chinese philosophers have been fascinated with handwriting since ancient times and have been especially interested in the distinct styles of calligraphy produced by different writers† (Sackheim,1990, p. xv-xvi). The first methodicalRead MoreMy Handwriting Is A Strong Indicator Of Your Personality873 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"plausible†. I say this because there are many ways geologists can tell a person’s personality just by the way they position their letters and how much space him/her may uses in their writing by hand. According to â€Å"Does Graphology Predict Personality a nd Intelligence† graphology books describe both what factors to look at (e.g., size, slant, zone, pressure, etc.) and what traits are revealed; However, there appears to be no consistency between them, particularly, in the description of personalityRead MoreMysteries Of Personality : The Unveiling1586 Words   |  7 Pagespersonality characteristics (Lilienfeld, 2010, p. 175-179). Research based evidence using methods that are valid, reliable and duplicable provide documentation opposing mythological theories concerning the connection between personality traits, astrology, graphology and self-affirmation (Lilienfeld, 2010; Stanovich, 2013). In 2009, Napper et al. published a study that focused on testing the â€Å"self-affirmation manipulation† (p. 45). â€Å"Self-affirmation theory† defines issues or situations that present themselvesRead MoreDifferent Types Of Register That People Use Every Day, And Your Register Essay1691 Words   |  7 Pagesopposing sides of a topic Graphology 1. The graphology of a text can have different results. 2. Synonym- evidence 3. The evidence of a text can have different results. 4. The essential message of the sentence is lost, the replacing of graphology to evidence similar meanings. The word graphology means how the different forms of communication creates meaning to a words and a system of signs. Evidence means different proofs resulting into one results. Graphology is more specific in how typesRead Morestylistics analysis of a sindhi woman972 Words   |  4 PagesWith the use of rhyme scheme, alliteration and repetition poet makes poem more attractive and beautiful. In other words we can say that these are the ornaments of poetry. Graphology: Graphology refers to the whole writing system: punctuation and paragraphing as well as spacing. According to Crystal and Davy (1969, p.18) ―Graphology is the analogous study of a languages writing system. These are the formalized rules of writing. Alabi (2007, p.170) added that a graphological discussion of style amongRead MoreFirst Aid for Adults Essay640 Words   |  3 Pages In order to comply with the rules of instructional writing, I needed to shorten the sentences so that the information was broken down in to smaller chunks to make it easier for the audience to follow. So I decided to change the graphology of the piece by using bullet points for the points in the opening paragraph of the speech so that it shows in a better way that the reader will pause between them. In my second draft, however, I decided to also have the points on anRead More Advertisement Coursework - Volkswagen Golf Essay935 Words   |  4 Pagescreate the appearance that it is not demanding to gain the car. Finally for this section. The advert constantly repeats the phrase ?more power, less pollution.? This is done to further strengthen the key selling point of the car. Graphology The graphology of this advert is unique to the designer. The first are the audience pays heed to, is the image. This comprises of the two contrasting images, placed in juxtaposition. The car itself however is positioned to be overlying each image. IntelligentlyRead MoreLanguage and Power AQA A level English Language B Essay1232 Words   |  5 Pageshaving imperatives, it makes the group come across as secure to the audience and therefore gaining their trust from the beginning. The imperative â€Å"write† is also in capital, bold letters right at the top of the page included in the title. This clever graphology compliments the use of the imperative by making it stand out. Because this is a leaflet through the letterbox, many people would normally regard it as junk mail and not take a second look. Because of the imperative in the title, it encourages peopleRead MoreEssay about Psychology is a Science506 Words   |  3 PagesPsychology is definitely not what I thought it was. It is not just a therapist wanting to take your money and not do anything for it. Psychology is an exact science that uses the scientific method to figure out problems. Things like astrology and graphology are not a real science, they do not use true science to deduct things and find a true answer. There are a lot of different ideas within the history of psychology. There was Structuralism, which focused on the structure of the mind. FuctionalismRead MoreThe Presentation of Food Science in a Variety of Non-fiction Texts1812 Words   |  7 Pagesmaterial is more varied, so suits my investigation. I chose four texts from the genre of food science writing aimed at very different audiences. I created a table in which to record the different aspect of my analysis these include lexis, imagery, graphology, numerical values/ scientific abbreviation and interesting features Title Genre Audience purpose Text A Horrible Science Childrens science magazine Young children To inform and entertain to educate Text B Food Processing Non-fiction book

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Australian Health Care and Reform Essay example - 3443 Words

Introduction A country’s health care system refers to all the institutions, programs, personnel, procedures, and the resources that are used to meet the health needs of its population. Health care systems vary from one country to another, depending on government policies and the health needs of the population. Besides, health care programs are flexible in the sense that they are tailored to meet health needs as they arise. Among the stakeholders in the formulation of a country’s health care system are governments, religious groups, non-governmental organizations, charity organizations, trade/labor unions, and interested individuals (Duckett, 2008). These entities formulate, implement, evaluate, and reform health services according to the†¦show more content†¦For instance, high income-earners in Australia are taxed a 1% levy to fund the health care system. For proper funding and accountability in the use of the health care funds, Australia has established a national health policy, which emphasizes the provision and accessibility universal health services to the public. In fact, the federal government plays the all-important role of covering most of the public medical expenses in hospitals, albeit by way of subsidies in some cases. This coverage could be in form of subsidies on services or drugs, as realized in the Pharmaceutical Benefits Schemes (Hill et al., 2005). The level of expenditures the federal government covers in the health care system varies from in-hospital costs, general practitioner, to specialist services. The other mechanism that determines the level of government cost coverage is whether a patient is a concession or is receiving other benefits. Moreover, there are situations when a patient has exceeded the threshold for federal subsidies. The threshold is often calculated on the allowable annual health expenditures. In situations where the federal government decides to pay the bigger portion of one’s medical expenditures, a patient pays the remaining part from own sources. This situation compares to the copayment system, practiced in other countries. In cases where a patient suffers from conditions not covered by the federal government such as dentistry, ambulance services, or optometry, aShow MoreRelatedThe Australian Healthcare Reform : The Canadian Health Reform1461 Words   |  6 Pagesdebate over health reform and healthcare for the future. As additional funding is not always a feasible option, health resource allocation and health finance need to be well managed to achi eve efficient outputs. Health resource allocation is the allocation and management of healthcare resources or healthcare rationing (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2014). Health finance refers to ‘function of a health system concerned with the mobilization, accumulation and allocation of money to cover the health needs ofRead MoreAssessment Tools For Aged Care1199 Words   |  5 PagesTitle: Assessment Tools for Aged Care in Australia Background: †¢ Australians over 65 are referred to as older people and make up the â€Å"aged† population. †¢ The aged care sector operates under the Aged Care Act 1997 and Aged Care (Transitional Provisions) Act 1997 that came into effect in July 2014. †¢ As part of National Health reform in 2011, the Council of Australian Governments agreed to transfer all funding and operational responsibility of aged care support services for people over 65 years toRead MoreThe Challenges Facing The Primary Health Care Sector865 Words   |  4 Pageshow policy reforms could address the challenges facing the Primary Health Care (PHC) sector in Australia. The different areas that have an impact on this are how successful the Federal Government Incentives and Reforms have been progressing. When looking at these areas, it is important to take into consideration how and what the challenges facing the PHC in Australia are and what the outcomes have revealed. Further, the intricacies of developing policy and the effectiveness of health and policy reformsRead MoreFiscal Reforms Of The United States890 Words   |  4 PagesPrevious Reforms of Policy In 1984, Medicare was introduced in Australia, in 2000, the Lifetime Cover scheme was introduced and in 2004, the Extended Medicare Safety Net was introduced (Hajizadeh, Connelly, Butler, 2014). According to Donato, and Segal, (2013) the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) signed a national partnership agreement in 2008. This partnership encompassed explicit targets which included the closing the life expectancy gap and halving infant mortality rate gaps. As wellRead MoreThe Population Profile Of Australia1396 Words   |  6 Pagesimpacting changes to how health care in Australia is to be delivered in the near future (Charlesworth, 2015). High rates of obesity, diabetes, heart diseases and poor life style choices such as smoking, alcohol and substance abuse, add to an existing crisis that imposes more pressure on an overworked healthcare system (Willcox, 2014). Future challenges for health industry leaders are to develop strategies, for delivery of inclusive and accessible health care (Council Of Australian Governments, 2016)Read MoreThe Australian Healthcare System Has Been Evolving Since The Beginning Of The Colonisation Of Australia1596 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The Australian healthcare system has been evolving since the beginning of the colonisation of Australia. Today, Australia has an extremely efficient healthcare system although it still has several issues. The influencing factors, structure, and current issues of the Australian healthcare system will be throughly discussed and explained in this essay. Influencing Factors When Australia was first colonised, health services were considered to be an issue to be dealt with by local governmentsRead MoreThe Social Determinants Of Health Care System1087 Words   |  5 Pagesculturally diverse societies and as our country grows, so does our cultural diversity. Our primary health care system is riddled with conflict based upon religion, ethnicity, culture and beliefs. All people from all cultures have the same potential for health and disease but it is the social determinants of health that shape the inequities within the Australian health care system. The definition of health is fluid, ever changing and carries different meanings across individuals, societies and culturesRead MoreThe Australian National Mental Health1191 Words   |  5 Pageson the Australian community, with 45% of Australians expected to experience mental illness at some point in their lives. In 1991, Australian Health Ministers commenced The Australian National Mental Health Strategy, which has since transitioned to its Fourth National Mental Health Plan Agreement. The Australian healthcare policy that has recently received attention in the Australian media is the revised National Mental Health Policy of 2008. The media article, ‘‘Futures will be lost’: Health fearsRead MoreAmerican And Australian Federalism : Similarities Between The Us And Australia s Federalist System1707 Words   |  7 PagesAmerican and Australian Federalism When looking at American and Australian federalism from afar, they look very similar, but if you look just a little bit closer you can see how differently these two systems operate. Some similarities that consist in their two systems are: they are federations, each have written constitutions that distinctly describe the roles of each branch of government, both have elections regularly where the people elect other people to represent them, the rules and responsibilitiesRead MoreHealth Concerns in Austrialia1545 Words   |  7 PagesPolitical Variables: Health is one the most essential and controversial issues in Australia politics and in this case it leads to the conflict between the Commonwealth and the State government. The Primary Health Care Reform in Australia, Report to Support Australias First National Primary Health Care Strategy 2009 report says the Australian health care system is multi-tiered and is comprised of organizations that are funded and organized by a range of different methods including Government (publicly

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Sentencing and Criminal Justice

Question: Discuss about the Sentencing and Criminal Justice. Answer: Criminal laws are defined as laws in Australia that are effectively designed to protect society from wrongful actions. This law provides punishment for the persons breaking the law which includes forfeiture of that persons right or he/she may be charged to imprisonment also. Criminal law is also known as penal law. This law includes Traffic/ road laws, Public order, laws related to property damage and laws related to people (Ashworth, 2015). Drink driving is included under traffic/ road laws. Drink driving is treated as serious and major offence as per Australian criminal law. As per laws related to drink driving in context of Australia, if a person is found to be driving a vehicle over the specified threshold level of BAC (Blood alcohol concentration) of 0.05, then those persons charged to various penalties. BAC defines the percentage of alcohol present in the blood, the higher the BAC, the greater the punishment and damage (Jacobs, 2013). Drunk driver are required to face both criminal charges and civil liability for their actions. In case of civil liability, a law suit is filed by the victim facing injury or his/ her family against drunk driver for recovering damages like cost of medical treatment and property damage. In addition to this, criminal drunk driving charges include fines, suspension or cancellation of licence and imprisonment (Bergman, 2015). The penalties for drink driving depend on the type of offence committed by the person, when the offence is committed , Age of person at the time of committing offence, the permit or licence held by that person and whether it was the first offence or not. There are three drink driving offence which are required to charged. It includes Driving under influence of alcohol and drugs (DUI), Driving with prescribed concentration of alcohol (PCA) and refusing to comply with directions of police in relation to breathe testing. Therefore, a person may be charges with driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs; if that person is incapable of controlling the vehicle which he/she is driving (Ashworth, 2015). If a person is incapable of controlling the vehicle he/ she are not causing damage to themselves only, but to the other persons on the road. Therefore, if an injury or damage is cause to a person because of taking lift or ride from an intoxicated person then it creates liability of person causing accident over other person about his/ her medical care or payment for the damage or losses incurred. Moreover, if it is known by person taking lift that the driver is under the influence of alcohol, then it creates risk on part on that person. As per Australian criminal law, Negligence is defined as a term that symbolizes the conduct of a person that causes a risk of harm for others and oneself also. Contributory negligence is described as a term that includes the conduct of a person which creates harm or injury to oneself. In addition to this, contributory negligence is the most appropriate means of providing just and socially accepted outcomes (Dongen, 2014). Furthermore, as per Australian criminal law related to drink driving it can be defined as a more complex situation where plaintiff is also intoxicated (under the influence of alcohol) and takes lift from intoxicated driver. Therefore, that person is also responsible for injury that causes to himself/ herself. Because, that person failed to take care of his/ her own safety, due to this he/ she may also held to contribute to the injuries that was caused due to negligent driving of defendant. It is also an important thing that should be considered that taking a ride from driver who is drunk creates obvious risk as civil liability legislation. Moreover, it may also become difficult in certain situations for defendant to prove that plaintiff has accepted the obvious risk. Contributory Negligence is particularly applied to the case where plaintiff is aware that defendant is driving under influence of alcohol and still accepts the lift. Therefore, the plaintiff is guilty of contributory negligence in such a situation. As per Australian criminal law, IPP panel gives a recommendation that, same objectives standards should apply to contributory negligence for plaintiff as the standard of care are applicable to defendants. As per Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia and Northern Territory, a minimum reduction of 25% is imposed on amount of recovery to be claimed by plaintiff. Because plaintiff was aware of the fact that defendant was intoxicated and he/ she were also under the influence of alcohol (Goudkamp, 2015). The way in which plaintiff can disprove the presumption (plaintiff is guilty of contributory negligence as he/ she failed to take appropriate and reasonable care for their own safety) varies in different states and also carry different re sults. In New South Wales, if the plaintiff is required to disprove the presumption, then he/she must satisfy the court that plaintiff self- intoxication does not contribute in any way to the damage or injury that is caused due to the accident. The present case is based on concept of contributory negligence because Rebecca (Plaintiff) was aware of the fact that Michelle (Defendant) was too drunk to drive, and then also she accepted to take ride from Michelle. Therefore, she is considered as guilty of contributory negligence as she failed to take reasonable care for her own safety and hence liable to contribute for her own injury. In addition to this, it is defined as the situation where plaintiff (Rebecca) is also intoxicated and she takes ride for home from an intoxicated driver (Michelle). Therefore, Rebecca can sue Michelle for recovering losses of injury that is incurred to her because of accident. But she will get compensation amount after a minimum reduction of 25% on amount of claim because she accepted a ride from an intoxicated person even when she was aware. References Ashworth, A. (2015) Sentencing and Criminal Justice.UK: Cambridge University Press. Bergman, P. (2015) Criminal Law: A Desk Reference. US: Nolo. Buckley, R.A., 2015. Injured passengers and the defence of illegality. Common Law World Review, 44(3), pp.192-202. Dongen, E. (2014) Contributory Negligence: A Historical and Comparative Study. Netherland: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Gans, J. (2011) Modern Criminal Law of Australia. UK: Cambridge University Press. Goudkamp, J. (2015) Apportionment of damages for contributory negligence: a fixed or discretionary approach?. Legal Studies, 35(4), pp.621-647. Jacobs, J. (2013) Drunk Driving: An American Dilemma. US: University of Chicago Press. Klein, S. (2013) Learning: Principles and Applications. US: SAGE Publications.